An Appraisal of Political and Legal Rights of Non-Muslims in Pakistan


  • Zahid Farooq Senior Lecturer, Department of Islamic Studies, The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan.
  • Alam Khan Assistant Professor, Department of Hadith & Orientalism, University of Gumushane, Turkey.



Political, Legal Rights, Non-Muslims, Pakistan, Constitution, Personal Law


Islamic society, which is based on justice and peace, gives all rights to each community living within its legal and juridical limits. It has been observed in seerat al-Nabi (PBUH) that, non-Muslims were given full rights to building their temples and they were also free to worship according to their religious ways and thoughts. Holy Prophet (PBUH) allowed them to perform their religious customs in their towns as they wish but within the limit of Islamic terms and conditions which were imposed in different agreements (i.e. Misaq e Madinah). In the present era, as we are living in multi-cultural and multi religions, there is much confusion about whether non-Muslims should be allowed or not for these acts. There is a great discussion between classical Islamic scholars. They think not to be allowed, although if necessary they should be bond in special terms and conditions. In a certain situation, there is a second opinion that allows Muslim statesman to give non-Muslims their religious liberty and allow them to build their temples in their areas under the need of circumstances. This article deals with both views and signifies the correct one in the light of seerat al-Nabi (PBUH) and presents various charters i.e. UNO charter.




How to Cite

Farooq, Z., & Khan, A. (2022). An Appraisal of Political and Legal Rights of Non-Muslims in Pakistan. Journal of Religious and Social Studies, 2(01), 49–62.